When we return to the basic understanding, culture itself is to maintain a particular organism in a given period and place in order to obtain benefits. Provide a specific place in a limited situation that is no longer as free as in nature or primarily in the open sea food needs, of course, like it or not we should try to fulfill it. The food in this case is very limited when compared to when they live in their natural habitat in nature. Therefore, errors in managing the feed will result in a minimum of 60% in failure cultivation due to the cost of production in the culture that valued allocated to the management of the feed. Meanwhile, the cultivation was carried out to pursue the economic benefits. One in managing fish will lead to large losses.
Like humans, fish require a complete nutrition and sufficient to her life. Major elements such as proteins, fats and carbohydrates as the main component of minerals and vitamins as well as supporting components, it is necessary to support the growth of an organism. How could the fish can grow well if given only feed from the rest of cassava leaves, coconut husks and even the remains of rice from the food we throw into our pond maintenance. That would probably cause other problems namely pisciculture environment will gradually feed contaminated by the rest of the sediment in the bottom waters that are not eaten by fish. These materials will accumulate at the bottom of the pool and combined waste from the fish itself so that one day pengurai bacteria could no longer work properly due to lack of oxygen so that results will be penguraiannya toxic compounds that are highly dangerous for the life of the cultivated organisms. Therefore, efforts to meet the demand for fish feed quality, affordable and environmentally friendly is needed.
What is a qualified feed
The value of fish feed quality is determined by how complete the availability of constituent components. The more complete constituent components, the higher the quality of the feed. Components of a complete feed that includes proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Additional materials such as materials
dyes, material towing (attractant), hormones, and binder (binders) are also required but is not mandatory in nature. Complete feed is nothing compared to when the fish pet damaged chopped fish only given. Compared with the feed / pellets, damaged chopped fish do not have complete nutrition for general
only dominated by the protein and moisture content with a little phosphorus.
Protein known as a body builder substances, cells or tissue. It collects various types of amino acids that are needed by the body. Absence of feed components will greatly affect the growth of both the growth of culture organisms to the body of fish (fish enlargement) and for the multiplication of cells / individuals (reproduction). The material commonly known protein is fish meal, shrimp meal, soy flour, industrial waste such as flour shrimp heads, fish intestines, rucah fish, blood meal, bone meal etc.. Each material has the number and types of different amino acids. Fish flour ranked first in the completeness of amino acid or in other words, fish meal is the best protein source in fish feed.
Fat as a component of the absolute largest energy provider is. Daily activities ranging from swimming, find food, avoid enemies, metabolism, growth and resilience of the body requires energy. It contained fatty acids and fish generally can not make itself and must be given in feed. However, fish can synthesize fats into fatty acids which are needed by people such as linolenic and linoleic acid (omega-3). That fish only capable of making omega-3 fatty acids and capable of human intellectual and even people, as happened in the State Sakura, Japan. Not only that, Japan as one of the largest fish consumed country in the world capable of making people live longer by eating fish that contain omega-3 and will be protected from various diseases. Materials such as fish oil, soybean oil, palm oil, corn oil and canola oil are fat sources commonly used in the manufacture of fish feed.
Although no direct effect on the growth, the presence of carbohydrates as an element of the cheapest energy providers in the feed is needed. Absence of feed components will force the protein to change its function of building materials into energy provider. This transfer-function will require greater energy levels resulting in fish ammonia gas emissions increased. Increased emissions of ammonia in the water will eventually result in polluted waters especially for basic organisms such as abalone and prawns. Starch, wheat flour, sago flour is commonly used materials. In addition to the energy provider, these materials also function as adhesive.
Another case with the above three main components, vitamins and minerals, although a little but very necessary. Vitamins such as is necessary to streamline work metabolism. In addition these vitamins are usually associated with the immune system of fish as in vitamin C. Minerals as well as the existence of even a little but also desperately needed. For example, phosphor elements associated with primary bone formation in fish larvae food. Bending bones (abnormalities) was made possible due to the lack or absence of phosphorus in feed intake of fish. View fish's body is very disturbing in the abnormal growth can even cause death. When the fish is alive, must be sold at low cost; even be thrown away because they do not deserve to be sold.
Cheap feed fish farmers yearning
Amid the hard-paced life today, the fish farmers desperate for a cheap feed prices. Moreover, the feed component is crucial for the success or failure of a business culture. In comparison, the price of fish feed that was only omnivore Rp 5.000/kg from various manufacturers. Prices are much more expensive is certainly happening at the price of fish feed carnivorous species such as shrimp, snapper, grouper. Fortunately selling high value export market can still cover the cost of production so that most people still choose to keep the fish species are carnivorous. But when thinking about sustainable farming, this concept should be discarded away. Meanwhile, in several research and policy, this does not apply to fish farming herbivore species (primarily fish meal plants) such as grass carp because of the prices of these types of fish are cheaper and abundant availability in nature. This should be a concern and one of the farmers policy makers and governments to keep the fish from the types of herbivore fish farm fish for survival in the future, although in terms of product prices, fish species herbivore slightly cheaper than carnivorous fish.
The high price of fish feed can not be separated from the high prices of materials existing feed makers. Components of fish meal and fish oil are the materials most expensive fat proteins. Therefore experts feed the world trying to replace fish meal and oil are increasingly scarce and expensive by sources other proteins through a series of studies.
There are two directions of research development is now done feed the world, namely the utilization of waste protein (protein by product) and proteins from plants (vegetable protein). The material was selected because of cheap price and availability of natural resources. Waste materials such as flour protein, shrimp heads, crab flour skin, blood meal, bone meal, flour squid intestines stomach, intestines flour chicken, tuna belly flour, silkworm pupa powder, becomes grounds to know, etc. of alternative materials to replace fish meal sufficient to provide a positive influence for the growth of fish. Similarly, the use of fish oil is also relatively expensive compared to vegetable oil. Therefore, the protein material and fat from plants such as soy flour, corn meal, flour, oil seed flour, soybean oil, palm oil and corn oil into flour and reliable substitute for a good fish oil that does not affect the growth of fish at a certain limit. Although recognized amino acids and fatty acids in the material
This is not as complete and as much as that found in the flour and fish oil. Even more controversial again, soybeans genetically engineered already widely used as a source of fish protein. The results of several studies indicate, the use of soy flour results in genetic engineering does not affect the fish's body for examination in almost all organs of fish are not carriers of the gene found in the soybean. Also good influence on the growth rate is not so different than the provision of non soy flour genetic engineering. Soybeans genetically engineered many of today's developed with the intent to prevent the plants from pests and diseases. So since
in 1996 it is natural that the FAO world body issued a statement about not dangerous use of soy is genetically engineered to feed the fish. In addition to fish is not harmful to pets, is also safe for humans. However, controversy about this continues despite the frequency was reduced.
Replacement of fish meal and oil with the materials mentioned above are encouraged to overcome the high prices of feed available. Coupled with the reduction in world fish stocks due to fishing management from the beginning was not concerned with aspects of sustainability. Therefore, according to a statement Worm et al (2006) in the journal nature, estimated in the year 2040 in the wild fish stocks will be exhausted if the world continues to consume fish like crazy today. Moreover, approximately 40% of fish that is used for the manufacture of fish flour. This will increase the difficulty of providing fish meal and make it grow
expensive. However, due to amino acids and fatty acids contained in fish meal and oil are the best, then its replacement with a maximum of 20% of soybean flour and 15% for soybean oil for example, is still worth it because there was no difference in the growth of snapper. Similarly, waste materials other proteins, is still no substitute for fish meal in total in the formulation of fish feed manufacture. Indeed the concept of "fish eat fish" is still true. However, this concept is not always true and can be applied, given the availability of fish on the dwindling natural.
Environmentally friendly feed, fish feed future
In addition to a very important role to develop pet fish, feed is also very large potential to reduce the cultivation of aquatic environmental quality through the remainder of the feed that is not consumed by fish waste and fish feces and urine during metabolic processes. The main waste of feed, feces and urine is ammonia and phosphorus; second again this material comes from fish meal protein. Ammonia content of the main elements are nitrogen and phosphorus (N) and (P) that can make a fertile waters (eutrophication) in a certain limit. But if these two elements accumulation exceeds the limit, then there was what is called the "excessive fertility" (hypereutrofikasi). These conditions resulted in water becomes starved of oxygen and bacteria perurai will produce toxic compounds that are dangerous for the life of the cultivated organisms. Organisms are particularly vulnerable to this is the shrimp FAQs for this species living in the bottom waters that will be most affected first. Similarly with budidayanya fish, will experience mass mortality during Welling up (removal of toxic compounds into surface water) in the rainy season. This occurs due to mass heavy rain that falls to the bottom and replace the base substrate that already contains this toxin up (due to heavy type of lighter) to the surface and poison the fish are kept so that the experience of death. While the danger that comes from the use of excessive fish oil will result in accumulated chemical compounds called dioxins. Dioxins are contained in fish oil at a certain level would be harmful to the body because it stimulates cancer.
To overcome this, there are two strategies that can be done. First, the use of materials of low phosphorus content. This can only be obtained with the use of proteins derived from plants such as soy flour, corn flour etc.. In addition to low cost, the materials of this plant proteins can be relied upon to replace fish meal by up to 20% of this quantity which does not result in reduced growth of fish. Similarly, vegetable oil, feeding the feed with fish oil would also reduce the possibility of accumulation of dioxin when compared to fat energy source that only comes from fish oil. The second strategy is to streamline the use of protein by the fish so that the content of nitrogen is wasted in faeces and urine was also reduced. This effort is done by mixing the ingredients of calcium monophosphate (Ca (H2PO4) 2) into the feed. This material is one of the mineral compounds that can streamline the use of fish protein metabolism in the process so that the waste waters of proteins to be low.
Aquaculture Fisheries Development.