Aquaculture Fisheries Development : Prawns are fresh water shrimp large enough and taste delicious that have high economic value both for domestic consumption and export. Consumption of 20-30 size shrimp tails / kg in the local market can be sold at a price $35 - $50./kg in Indonesia. So to meet the needs of these markets requires a technique that prawns can produced in large enough scale.
Including prawns Palamonidae families. Board consists of shrimp 3 parts:
head and chest (cephalothorax), body (abdomen) and tail (Uropoda). Cephalothorax is covered by skin loud, in front of the head there is a jagged ridge called karapas on the rostrum as many as 11-13 on the bottom of the fruit and fruit 8-14.
Live prawns in the two habitats, the stadia larvae live in brackish water and back to fresh water on juvenile to adult stadia. In stadia larvae metamorfose changes occur as many as 11 times and lasted for 30-35 days. Prawns are omnivores, tend to actively at night.
The difference between males and shrimp shrimp females:
1. Shrimp males:
• Relatively higher
• Couple second leg of the road is relatively larger and longer (can even achieve 1.5 times total body length)
• The slimmer stomach
• shorter pleuron Size
• The genitals are at the foot of the base pairs fifth street
• The couple feet road looks more meetings and soft.
2. Shrimp females:
• Smaller Body
• Couple second road legs keep growing bigger, but not as big and long bull shrimp
• The bigger the belly
• Pleuron lengthwise
• The genitals are located at the base of the third leg, is a hole called thelicum.
In practice, naturally spawning activity is a pair of male and female parent of the gonads mature / ready to spawn into the same container maintenance. Unlike in the process of cultivation of fish other marriage-like goldfish - the process of spawning can occur in a relatively short time and only just about one or two days. Gonads mature fish will spawn / mate naturally. At spawning shrimp, the marriage process is strongly influenced and closely related to the moulting process (skin replacement) in the female parent. In this case the process of moulting and spawning is influenced by hormonal glands located in the eye stalk.
Prior to the process of spawn, the female shrimp first skin change called premattingmoult. After the shrimp females experiencing skin changes, it becomes weak. At this time the marriage will occur. Marriage prawns in a simple place. Male shrimp will release sperm and the sperm will be accommodated on the foot path between spermatheca females. The next process is the process of fertilization that occurs outside the mother's body. This incident took place at the time of the eggs fell through the hole sex, which then will be moved to the hatch. Eggs contained in spermatheca be fertilized by a sperm. After fertilization took place, eggs are laid in the incubation space located between the foot of dams pool until it is time to hatch.
In nature the process of general spawning occurs in estuaries. In tropical regions like Indonesia spawning process is likely to occur throughout the year. In biology this spawning process will occur in the mouth of the river because the larvae / naupli prawns will only be able to live and thrive in brackish water conditions (salinity 8-12 ppt).
To determine the location of scale backyard shrimp hatchery households course different from large-scale hatchery. Some things that need to be considered in site selection are:
1. Easily obtain fresh water that is clean, clear, and free from waste
2. Electricity available for 24 hours
3. Land like a stable base
4. Close to suppliers nauplius, feed, and marketing areas.
1. Fresh Water
This fresh water needed for dilution in a brackish water (salinity 8-12 ppt), maintenance of the larvae, cleaning the tub and other seeding equipment, maintenance of the parent, acclimatization, and also temporary post-larvae before marketed.
This fresh water should be cleared of silt and other dirt, free of various contaminants (pesticides, oil, lubricants, waste residential / industrial, other materials that can reduce water quality), pH 7,5-8, and hardness 40 -- 100 ppm.
Source water can be derived from PAM, but because the supply is not constant, then the shelter is in the tub, and then flowed through the pipes to the hatchery.
2. Sea Water
Sea water dilution is necessary for making the water brackish. Sea water must be free of various contaminants and has a pH 7,5-8.
3. Air Supply / aeration
Aeration is required to distribute oxygen, distribute food to live, and also distributes a moving artificial feed such as feed live (because of shrimp feed prefer living / moving).
Aeration is done continuously during the maintenance and hatching Artemia cysts. This air source can be derived from the blowers. Air is pumped through a pipe flow blower pralon, then transferred to small tubes of plastic to spread (the tip given aeration stone to produce small air bubbles), then the stone is placed at the base of the tub. The number of aerator is needed depends on the volume of water available.
Electricity is needed for lighting, run blower, water pump, heater, etc.. as a backup for the availability of electricity is necessary generators.
5. Hatching container and Maintenance
Spawning containers that can be used include, among others: pool ground, like concrete, fiberglass bathtub or aquarium. The use of these containers are related to the level of treatment will be applied, for example in the main spawning aquarium requires more handling requires aeration system, a routine water change maybe even the water heater, while the number of parents who kept limited. Therefore a lot of container used in the seeding units are generally in the form of a concrete pool or tub with adequate area suitable amount of parent-run. Container requirements for spawning ponds are the same as for the maturation vessel maintenance. Ponds have water revenues and expenditures door. Water flow into the pond less than 0.5 L / sec. Ponds is also equipped with a channel system in the middle of the pond and the little patch in the section that will allow the pool at harvest / selection.
Preparation pond that needs to be done includes, drying, basic repairs, dikes and channel the pool, and 50 Calcification gram/m2 doses. Another thing to do is install shelter / refuge for shrimp that are changing the skin. For this you can use coconut leaves and twigs of trees. The depth of water in the pool are ideal for spawning between 80 - 100 cm.
6. Natural Food Culture Vessel
This vessel to culture Artemia Salina. This vessel is also equipped with aerator.
Some of the requirements to obtain a good parent:
1. Size dams above 40 g and males above 50 gr
2. Bag full of egg incubation was gray
3. Complete organ / no disability
4. Leather clean / free of dirt and organisms that are pathogenic
5. Parent age between 8-20 months
6. Selecting parent egg ripe for a second time and so on, not spawned more than 7 times.
7. Derived from fast-growing shrimp
In the observations in the field of production, the result of spawning activity usually can
evaluated after 21 days, starting from the main spawning incorporated into the container. Parent selection is done by mature eggs hatching pond drying, these activities should be conducted in the morning. Should pool the morning was dry and stem the map accommodated all the more in the middle of the pond, the water in this condition should continue to flow. Therefore, the slope of the pond system, the channel map the middle of the pond and more in the middle of the pond must be applied properly, so the parent awake from the dead.
Parent harvested carefully and hapa or collected in reservoirs
previously prepared and equipped with running water system. After the main condition refreshed some time, then the process of selection / election of parent mature eggs can be done immediately. Based on field observations of egg maturation rate may vary from the parent begin to orange, yellow to grayish colat. Parent is ready hatched brown-gray, this master carefully should immediately be moved into the bed of hatchery that had been prepared previously (water used for hatching salinity containing approximately 5 ppt). For the parents with egg colors, orange and yellow are separated in the pool or tub For further ripened. While males may be kept back in the pond restoration / maintenance of the females separated from the females.
In managing a business unit of prawns seeding, the number of parents who managed a very decisive for the success of a production planning. After production target juvenile (post larvae) determined in accordance with economic considerations, then start the backward calculations done how many parents have to managed, so that production targets can be achieved. Related to parents and how managed, the few things that need to be logged and production planning are as follows:
1. The number of eggs produced by females (Fecundity). Strongly associated with parent measures used, and the related maintenance performed on water management and food provided,
2. Data connection between the parent mature egg weight associated with the number of larvae / naupli produced. This data reflects the quality of eggs produced,
3. Percentage of the amount of data that the parent egg-laying and mature females of all connected,
4. The number of males and females who used the comparison appropriate.
Comparison of males and females in spawning activity depends on the purpose.
Comparison of male: female (1: 3) is very common for a scattered seed production activities for the purpose of enlargement. The main propagation purposes - the natural parent is generally performed in the ratio (1: 1).
In principle, a lot of spawning techniques applied in the seeding of shrimp
pole is of such nature that have been described previously. Although the marriage process influenced the process of moulting, which is associated with the existing hormonal glands in the eye stalk, but in the spawning process, not common eye stalk cutting (ablation) to stimulate the process.
Before spawning occurs first female shrimp shed his skin (premating moult). In this case shrimp weak recovery occurred after spawning. Spawning can be done in earth ponds, aquariums, like concrete or fibreglass with a density of 4 fish / m 2. Comparison of male and female parent 1: 3. During the main spawning process given pellets of feed with protein content as much as 30% 5% per day of biomass with the frequency of heavy feeding 4 times a day, 21 days old spawning.
In cultivation, the seed is an important determinant and absolute must be provided. To meet the market share in external and domestic, is required continuity of production and availability of seed supply good qualified quantity and quality. Prawns seeds can be obtained in two ways, namely to collect seeds in nature and also by producing seeds in the seeding halls.
PRAWN PARENTS MAINTENANCE
Mother kept in the pool with a density of 4 fish /m2, given the form of pellets to feed
30% protein content as much as 5% of body weight. In the maintenance of this master, male and female parent should be maintained separately, both in the pool or on concrete tub equipped with a door income and expenditures with a depth of 80-100 cm.
FOOD AND FEEDING
Nutritional Values of feed given will greatly affect the quality of eggs produced. Therefore, the protein content of feed given should be no less than 30%. Feeding amount is 3 - 5% of the weight of the existing parent. The number of feeding at night more advisable.
Feed consists of two types, namely natural food and artificial feed / dough. Artemia Salina widely used as natural food. Artemia Salina are still used in the nauplius stage. How to hatch Artemia cysts Salina:
1. Cysts soaked in a solution of chlorine is 1.55 ppm for 30 minutes
2. The sediment cyst washed with clean fresh water
4. Inclusion cysts brackish water that is mixed with air bubbles
Nauplius harvested after 24 hours to feed the larvae that was less than 15 days, while the larvae feed for 15 days until post-larvae given naupilus have 48 hours old. The amount given depends on the age of larvae, larger larvae will be more and more nauplius needs.
Artificial feed consisting of nonfat milk (12 g), wheat flour (50 grams), egg yolk (120 g), shrimp (650 grams), vitamins (10 mL), and water (100-200ml). Given natural feed 3 times a day, whereas artificial feed given 2x/hari. Artificial feed is made by:
1. All the ingredients (except shrimp) mashed with a blender
2. Shrimp removed the head and skin
3. Shrimp ground
4. Shrimp are united with all the dough, and mashed
5. The dough is inserted into the pan, and then steamed
6. Soaked with water
7. Filtered (net eye size as needed)
Used bathtub-sized hatch (1 x1 x0, 5) m2 with brackish water with medium salinity 3-5 ppt, solid stem stocking 25 fish per tub. During hatching eggs, the mother was given food in the form of propagation of cassava, cassava or potatoes cut into small pieces. This is to avoid the negative impacts of water quality. At temperatures 28-30 ° C the eggs will hatch within 6 - 12 hours. Then the larvae moved into the tub maintenance.
After hatching for 21 days, the parent selected a mature egg with egg color gray. Parent is treated with Malachite green solution, 1.5 mg / liter, by soaking for 25 minutes.
Rearing larvae of prawns can be performed on fiber glass bath tub cones or concrete sudagh cleaned from dirt and washed with a solution of 10 ppm of chlorine. Things that require attention in the maintenance of the larvae include water quality and good feeding natural food and feed the dough is adjusted to the larval mouth opening. Density of larvae stocked 50 fish / liter.
Nauplius of Artemia feed given morning and afternoon on day 3. On the same day also provided to feed the dough into post larvae by providing a frequency 8 times / day. Replacement of water every day is as much as 20-30%, on day 10 started to be siphoned dirt on the tub bottom. Maintenance medium salinity 10 ppt larvae.
After all the larvae to juvenile, the salt levels down steadily until the 0 ppt, grading began after 30-day-old larvae, and on day 45 juvenile is ready to be marketed.
For larval feeding is done by:
1. Aerator is turned off so that larvae arriving at the bottom can rise to the surface.
2. Feed evenly spread
3. Aerator switched on.
Every day is like a maintenance cleaning by:
1. Aerator and heater turned off
2. left for 30 minutes so the dirt settles
3. dirt taken with inhaled by PVC pipe with a hose connected
4. at the end of the hose attached to the filter can not penetrate larvae
5. water is replaced with a new
6. Aerator and heater cleaned
7. Aerator and heater functioned again.
During the maintenance period of the larvae, common bacterial disease that originated from the marine Vibrio sp. with signs of stress. Then the mass death occurred in a short time. To prevent this, the media needs to be done and drying chlorination tub and other facilities for a week. If already infected by the disease in the larvae which may be used, maintained Furazolidon dose 10-15 ppm.
The disease is one of the factors limiting the success of seeding prawns. The disease usually arises is a form of bacterial disease Vibro sp. with such marked stress, Fluorescent on the dead larvae, and mass death occurred in a short time.
To prevent bacterial attack, should the provision Chlor in the media and drying facilities for 7 days, if it is attacked by the treatment using dosage Furozolidone with 11-13 ppm, by soaking for 3 days.
Aquaculture Fisheries Development.