Fisheries Development,Freshwater Fish,Seawater Fish, Selling Vaccines Fish

Monday, February 8, 2010


Aquaculture Fisheries Development : Parents is a fish that has been mature or ripe gonad sex, the females have produced eggs and the males have sperm generate. In fish culture, the parent is the main production facilities. From the parent get their children, as the main production facilities in rearing activity.
Parent selection is an early stage in fish culture activities that are critical success of the production. By making the correct selection of main stem will be obtained in accordance with the needs so the cultivation of fish productivity optimal. Selection of the parent fish cultivation can be done easily by taking into
account the character of their phenotype or by breeding programs to increase the value of the glorification of fish with spawn.
Mother superior fish seeds will produce a superior fish. In Indonesia, there is currently no place as the center of the parent fish ensuring the benefits of each type of fish. Mother superior fish at each fish culture activities can be derived from the cultivation or fishing in the wild.
Main characteristics superior to any type of fish is very different. The things that are important to note by the fish farmers in selecting the parent to prevent any decline in the quality of the parent include:
• Knowing the origin of the parent
• Doing recording data on parent age, time of reproduction and the first time carried out until the age of productive spawning.
• Conducting parent selection based on genetic principles
• Doing maintenance in accordance with the main candidates’ cultivation process so the parent's nutritional needs are met.
• Reduce the possibility of incestuous marriages
To improve the quality of the parent to be used in the cultivation process is the parent that will be used to do selection. Selection of fish aims to improve the genetics of the parent fish to be used. Therefore, by making the correct selection of fish will be able to improve the genetics of fish that can do the glorification of the fish. The purpose of the glorification of these fish is to produce superior seeds which are superior seed obtained from the parent fish selection results in order to improve productivity.
To obtain a superior parent fish selection program conducted by applying several breeding programs including the activities of selective breeding, hybridization / out breeding / crossbreeding, inbreeding, mono-sex / sex reversal or a combination of several breeding programs. Superior parent seed that will produce superior so by maintaining superior seed cultivation process will benefit by seeing the rate of growth of optimal fish farm fish productivity will increase.
In the application of fish culture farmers usually take care of the parent fish obtained from the cultivation with the way male and female parent separately maintained. This is much easier in the management; control and most importantly can prevent seeding outside the will of "breeding thieves". Main pond-soil walls, or swimming with the embankment soil from the walls. There are no specific provisions about the size of the pool for maintenance of the parent. Usually the main pool is adjusted only by land and financial condition. To facilitate the management and efficiency of use of the pool, the pool area of male and female parent of each ranging from 15 to 30 square meters. Each pond is equipped with a channel of water revenues and expenses. In both these channels are usually equipped with a filter so that the parent-parent is not out or blurred. Parent stocking density of 3 to 4 kg / m 2, while the height of water in the main pool of 60 to 75 cm. In order to obtain sufficient maturity parent, every day in the given parent nutritious feed. Type of feed given in the form of artificial feed pellets as much as 3 - 5% per day from parents who maintained weight. There is also the parent fish are given feed of poultry waste (chicken that died) who were burned or boiled first.

1. Parent Selection Fish Catfish
Catfish parent selection in general in the beginning of the fish seed size (5-10 cm). A good seed for fish in selected parent with the characteristics include having a more rapid growth, not handicapped, agile movements and have a good body shape. Seed / prospective parent in the pool is maintained properly, and then the candidate parent selection is done on a regular basis until a parent is really good and in accordance with needs.
Catfish seeding activity begins with the parent selection. Parent had be selected is the mother of male and female gonads mature. The characteristics of the mother is a genital catfish papilla round (oval), the abdomen is relatively large, slow motion, if at around the abdomen was soft and pink genitalia reddish color. While the father is characterized by genital pointed to the tail, stomach and at the end of slender genital besides reddish color change to reddish-brown body.
Parent who has been selected based on mature gonads, and then conditioned fasted for 2 days. During fasting conditions, the parent males and females separated. The purpose of this fasting condition is to reduce body fat content in fish. This is because fat in the body of the fish can inhibit ovulation in the female egg and sperm expenditure in the male parent. Parent had conditioned fasting, separated between male and female parent. This aims to avoid spawning a thief. In addition, the separation aimed at accelerating the parent fish spawning
The characteristics of African catfish dams that are ready to be mated as follows:
• The abdomen was enlarged to the rectum and feels soft if touched.
• Hole sex reddish and looked a little dilated.
• If the abdomen is gently massaged into the rectum, will be out a few grains
dark green eggs and relatively large size.
• Movements were slow.
The characteristics of parental African catfish males who are ready to be mated as follows:
• Genitals visible red
• Color body slightly reddish
• Body lean and agile movements.

2. Grass carp parent selection

Parent gold fish will breed should be kept in a separate place between males and females in order to stem the growth of fish and not the optimal place an unwanted breeding. In the grass carp, home maintenance must be done properly and correctly in order to get the parent who is ready and superior to be breed.
Grass carp home maintenance is one important aspect that must be implemented in a gold fish breeding programs. Parent gold fish properly maintained will produce fish eggs and seeds in the amount and quality expected.
A good parent fish should be kept from the seeds, it can be seen from the lively movement, grow big, healthy and have a good appetite. Maintaining seed parent candidates should be done since harvesting, seed age 1 month. In maintaining this prospective parent must be given adequate food and nutritious. Parent candidates which are then kept in selection re-sized at 100-200 grams. Candidates for male and female parents were chosen based on morphological characteristics of good envy, among others:
• Candidates must have parent morphological characters with the following criteria: stout body shape, the base of a strong and broad tails, scales large and irregular, bright colors, head pointed and smaller than the width of the body (1: 1.5), the wide and flat stomach , thick body and high-backed.
• Prospective parent must come from a different descent, both male and female fish.
• Prospective parents must have the property fast growing, healthy, resistant to disease and environmental change and responsive to the feed.
Parent candidates who have been selected in the pool kept the main maintenance until ready to be paired. In order to obtain high-quality master and can produce eggs in the maximum amount, which must be observed are:
• Maintenance of regular feed, the feed given to a protein content of 30-35%, the amount of feed given per day ranged between 2-3% and the frequency of feeding as many as 2-3 times.
• Pool maintenance conditions must be optimal, ie dissolved oxygen content of at least 5 ppm, the water temperature range 25-30o C and the water was not polluted.
• Dense stocking prospective parent ranged from 0.1 kg / m 2 - 0.25 kg/m2.
• Parent candidates are maintained until they reach a certain size to mated.
Parent male grass carp gonads mature faster than the female grass carp. Age 10-12 male grass carp months with 0,6-0,75 kg weight had reached sexual maturity, whereas the ideal mother reaches maturity
gonads at the age of 1.5-2 years with a 2-3kg weight. Parent gold fish will mated should really be distinguished between males and females.
Main characteristics Males
• Pectoral fin relatively long, outer radius of the thick
• Pectoral fin layer of coarse
• head not widened
• the body is more slender than the females of the same age
• quick movement
• healthy and not defect
• regular scales with bright colors
Characteristics of the female parent
• Pectoral fin relatively short, soft, weak, outer radius of the thin
• Layer in the pectoral fin smooth
• Head relatively small, slightly tapered shape
• Thicker body than the male with the same age
• healthy and not defect
• regular scales with bright colors
• slow and gentle movements
Goldfish parent males, females should be maintained in a separate pond for fish, and precocious sex marriage does not occur wild. Parent properly maintained will be able to reach the gonads mature.
Characteristics of sexually mature male parental
• Lean body
• Remove sperm or white fluid when the stomach is pushed into the rectum
Characteristics of sexually mature female parental
• rounded belly and soft when palpated
• genital papilla expands, rather open and reddish
• anal hole widened and prominent (slightly swollen)

3. Selection of the parent fish tilapia
Management of the parent in seeding activities have an important role in supporting the success, because the parent is one of the main factors that will determine the quality and quantity of seeds produced.
Management of the parent on the basis of the nature of the parent and the parent needs to be able to live and breed optimally.
The scope of the parent management is achieved according to the seeding efficiency of a business of fish can be grouped into three main groups namely procurement, maintenance prospective parent, and quality improvement to maintain quality of the parent or the parent.
In order to achieve the efficiency of a seeding efforts, the procurement of stem there are two things that must be considered the main potential quantity and quality of the parent candidates. The calculation to determine how much the parent should be available in a seeding unit, in order to produce seeds in accordance with the opportunities or existing market share, then in calculating the amount of the parent should consider the 4 aspects:
• Scale, the smallest business units in the seeding tilapia fish which are economically still able to provide efficiency and optimal benefits. Quantity and continuity of production, the number of products (seeds) to be produced in accordance with the requirements set in the period and a specific time interval is continuously in accordance with predetermined targets.
• Productivity parent, the mother's ability of each breeding to produce tilapia fish in accordance with specified criteria.
• Parent mortality, the percentage of parents who lost during the maintenance (productive age) either caused by the death / missing or something that the parent will not produce to produce eggs.
From the above aspects in a practical amount of parent fish tilapia in an area / pond spawning is determined by the male parent and the parent size. This is due to the nature of tilapia fish spawned is where the father would make a territorial area that should not be disturbed other fish. Thus the numbers of female fish are generally more than the male fish to be easy to give a chance at finding a male to mature female gonads.
4. Selection of the parent fish catfish
Parent fish catfish can spawned after 2-3 years of age. At the age of the parent fish, catfish have been having an weight 3-5 kg / fish. The characteristics of the mother is having a round shape and abdominal urogenital relatively more developed than the male parent. Whereas if the father has the abdomen and more slender.
Catfish fish dams mature gonads have characteristics enlarged abdomen toward the genital opening is red, swollen and shiny and slightly bulging abdomen when palpated feels soft. While the main characteristics of male fish that can spawned catfish when the stomach is massaged into the rectum will come out white and thick liquid.
Parent fish that have been selected for further conditioned for 1-2 days of fasting. During the parent fish, water continuously flows into the pond / container. The purpose of fasting is to reduce levels of fat in the egg expenditure channel. If the parent fish, the female's stomach still looks bigger after fasting, fish parent got kanulasi (do fish eggs are siphoned with a catheter) to determine whether the parent fish are ready spawned.
Kanulasi aims to determine the degree of gonadal maturation dams by measuring the diameter uniformity of eggs. Kanulasi done in a way to suck eggs by using a small tube (catheter) 2-2,5 mm in diameter. Small hose is inserted into the hole as deep urogenital 4 to 6 cm into the ovary. The other end of the hose is then inhaled by mouth tube was pulled out of the hole urogenital, and then blown to push the eggs out of the hose. Eggs out of the hose were accommodated in a thin glass plate or in other containers. The next egg diameters measured using a ruler. When 90 to 95% of eggs have a diameter of 1.0 to 1.2 mm, meaning that the mother can spawned. Also features a mature egg is quickly dried up or separated each other when placed in the back of his hand.
Aquaculture Fisheries Development.

2 komentar:

Anonymous said...
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Anonymous said...

I'm new around here, seems like a cool place though. I'll be around a bit, more of a lurker than a poster though :)
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