Fisheries Development,Freshwater Fish,Seawater Fish, Selling Vaccines Fish

Saturday, March 21, 2009

a note in a pond Gracilaria

Aquaculture Fisheries Development : I plan to do business in the field cultivation of brackish pond for cultivation of grass species Gracilaria.
here is some note that I received a note based on a survey of some of this type of business, so I can learn.

Biology Gracilaria sp

Seaweed is a huge weed (Macroalgae) which is a plant-level and low to include in the Divisio Thallophyta.
Thallophyta plant is a division of it's morfology consists of thallus. This plant does not have any roots, stem and leaf sterling. Function of the third part is replaced by thallus.
Three main classes of seaweed divisio

Thallophyta is Rhodophyceae (red seaweed), Phaeophyceae (brown seaweed) and Chlorophyceae (green seaweed) that they be distinguished by the womb and khlorofil pigment. Rhodophyceae generally red, brown, indigo, and even green, pigment cells have fikoeritrin.
One of the types of objects that includes this class is Gracilaria, with the classification:

Divisio: Thallophyta
Class: Rhodophiceae
Ordo: Gigartinales
Family: Gracilariaceae
Genus: Gracilaria
Species: G. verrucosa, G. lichenoides, G. eucheumoides, G. blodgettii, G.
cylindrical, G. confervoides and G. arcuata

Characteristics - Genus Gracilaria general characteristics:

The characteristics of the genus Gracilaria thallus form its flatten or astigmatism, form clumps with the type of branching that are not regular, dichotomous (two-two-ongoing) alternate, pinate or dichotomy divaricate, thallus narrow the base of branching. While the nature of the substance, such as Gracilaria thallus cartilage (cartilagenous). Edge-edge thallus generally taper, surface smooth or nodules. Thallus diameter in the range of 0.5 - 4.0 mm. Length can reach 30 cm or more.

Here are some differences in morphology of each species Gracilaria:

»G. verrucosa
Thalli composed by a network of strong, red purple, gray verdure, ramify reach 1-3 dm high with a diameter branch between 0.5 - 2.0 mm. Branching alternate, sometimes with almost dichotomous lateral recurrence. Form of branch and taper astigmatism at the end of the branch.

»G. lichenoides
Plants form a clump of dense / dense, serpentine. Thalli form of astigmatism, cartilaginous, brown greenness. Branching did not alternate regularly, with the dichotomous end of the taper.

»G. eucheumoides
Thalli thin, cartilaginous, crawling, often on the jagged side thallus, brown greenness, the lower part of the thallus shine quite slippery and the top of the rough surface. Dichotomous branching, spreading, and extended to all directions on the surface of the stone substrate.

»G. blodgettii
Thalli erect, leafy and much branching, reaching 2 dm high, reddish color. Radial branches, rarely spreads. The main stem ribbed branches 2 mm and between 0.5 - 1.0 mm. All shaped astigmatism, but after branching taper to the edge.

»G. cylindrical
Thalli erect, 3 dm high-achieving, software such as meat, red roses, almost entirely shaped astigmatism. Main stem is at the short stalk and a rounded ribbed middle between 2 - 4 mm. Rarely a simple branching dense, almost all of astigmatism, radial alternate, generally lengthwise. At the close branches off at the base, often arcuate (the form of arrows), which sometimes gather at the edge.

»G. confervoides
Thalli astigmatism, which form a dense clump. Alternate branching and sometimes pectinate, dichotomous and can also trichotomous. Branch relative reach 5 cm long and taper to the edge.

»G. arcuata
Thalli astigmatism, cartilaginous, fawn, pink or purple. Dichotomous branching, relatively short taper to the edge. Rigid form clumps.


METHOD IN plant in ponds

In the cultivation of seaweed in the pond, water ecology and pond construction are factors that influence the growth of seaweed.
Some of the requirements for embankment cultivating seaweed Gracilaria sp is:
  • near the pond shore
  • of fresh water sources to reduce salinity
  • protected area
  • differences that make it easy enough so that water pond turnover
  • basis consisting of sand and mud
  • made sea water 30%, every three days, or two times a week
Construction ponds
Ideal form of a pond
  • range of map 1 ha
  • bog pond and a little sandy
  • two for each plot, which functions as a door and door disposal income
  • depth between 50 -60 cm
  • of land slope 5 - 10 cm
Main Dyke useful for holding water and protect the pond from the danger of flooding, erosion and high tide, so that the main dike needed really strong. Basic dike should really clean of vegetation, including large radical; when there are still remains of plants, the dike will easily leak
Sluicegate work in determining the success of the water. Sluicegate usually consist of two kinds, namely the doors and the water main map.
Water channel
Water channel function to enter the water at any time easily, either to drain water from the sea or fresh water from rivers / irrigation

Water management

Water management pond system preferably using gravity or tidal sea water.
Good water quality, quantity and not enough wasted contaminated with the requirements:

  • temperature : 20 - 28 ° C
  • salinity : 15 - 32

  • pH : 6.8 - 8.2
  • Dissolved oxygen : 3 - 8 ppm
  • : the water is not too muddy and allows receiving sun shine
  • pollution: far from the waste industry and waste soil

  • Preparation and Planting
    Land preparation
    Activities of land preparation is done before seeds planted cultivation. Basic pond cleared of animal-animal predators. For seaweed 's is mujair fish.
    Next thing should be done in the framework of preparation pond:
    • The basic pond or mud over the embankment, and after re-entered into the dry pond.
    • activity is only done after the harvest and before planting.
    • Aqueduct that grown moss and also closed over elementary land/ground fishpond are cleaned to care of water circulation in order to remain to be fluent.
    • accelerate growth, can also be fostered with the use of fertilizer elements and burly 450 kg / ha.
    Provision of seeds
    Provision of seeds originally done with coordination and assistance from the company that developed the seeds for this type of seaweed that options have been tested and can meet the requirements of quality, both for the local market and export markets.
    Provision of seeds can also be taken from farmers who have cultivating seaweed. That must be brought in the seeds so that death does not occur during the trip is:
    • must remain in a state of wet / humid during the trip
    • exposed to fresh water or rain
    • affected by oil or other dirts
    • from sources of heat such as engine and other vehicle
    When the seeds are not good / have damaged the signs:
    • reddish or white color
    • slimy
    • not smell nice / rotten
    • damaged / broken

    How packing seeds:
    • a plastic bag in accordance with the width of the pieces of the seeds will be taken
    • preparing to sea grass seeds in a plastic bag so that no seeds solid not damaged, and then tie the top of the plastic bag with the strap
    • hole at the top with the needle
    • insert a plastic bag in cardboard boxes that have been provided
    After reaching the goal, seeds should be immediately opened and soaked in pond water so that the seeds adapted from origin to where the new seeds will cultivated. Done after soaking for 1 - 2 hours, then made the selection of seeds is still good. In general, to select good seeds that can be seen from a fresh physical, thallus quite small and hard, and the color is quite dark and not pale. To propagate seeds can then be either cutting (vegetative) after the seeds are aged 2 - 4 weeks.

    Planting Seeds
    Planting grass seed in the brackishwater pond method using the broadcast, where all the seeds planted in the pond. Planting seeds by using this method have the advantage that is relatively cheaper cost of the material, its planting and management. Best planting time is done on the morning or afternoon, to avoid the seaweed from the drought. At planting, the seaweed should be taken from the nursery (seed warehouse) in order to awake quality. For the next planting, seed seaweed can be taken from a small harvest. If the conditions to support natural salinity and sea grass will grow earlier and produce optimal spore which is the embryo of the sea grass seed. The period of planting is done during the 4 months, each month when the family looks seaweed then conducted back to the way the distribution of the family and tear up while deployed.
    Average sea grass planting seedlings for 1 ha around 1-1,5 ton at the beginning of the planting. If the growth of seaweed reached over 3% of the solid can be increased to 2 tons / ha.

    Maintenance and supervision should be done every day, with supervision on water quality and water temperature in the pond. Replacement of water pond is done twice a week. Maintenance of the plant is done with plants that clean the silted. When the seaweed growth less well, fertilization can be done with urea or NPK fertilizer with the concentration of 50 kg / ha.
    The first harvest should be done after the age of 4 months. For seaweed harvesting is done by reducing the height of water up to 30 cm, to make it easier. Seaweed harvesting is done with the left part of the sea grass that grows back. Usually the top tip and the tip of the thallus of seeds to be separated again. Second harvest made 1.5 -2 months later.
    Harvesting is done with the land and plants to choose between the old and the young thallus. Thallus a young returned to the pond to be planted again.
    Once harvested, washed with seaweed pond water to remove dirt and disortasi to separate other types of seaweed that is not desired. Similarly, others such as mud, dirt or other foreign substances, are separated.

    Drying seaweed done with putting seaweed harvest on the rack or net for 2 - 3 minutes, until dry, dry air in accordance with the standard (12 - 18%). Depreciation seaweed Gracilaria sp from wet to dry after the drying is 10:1, meaning that one ton of wet harvest seaweed Gracilaria sp, will be one quintal dried seaweed.
    Once dried seaweed, and stored in a plastic bag and placed in a dry place, that place where humidity is always kept

    so that's all of that have i do on my ponds
    careful, diligent, thrifty and effective in working
    Aquaculture Fisheries Development.

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